When Ebola hit the town of Mbandaka in northwest Congo in 2018, well being officers needed to act quick – the town was related through common boat service to the sprawling capital Kinshasa, the place the lethal virus may unfold uncontrolled.
In contrast to in earlier outbreaks, that they had a brand new weapon – an experimental vaccine that would revolutionise the struggle in opposition to Ebola – if they might maintain the vials between minus 60-80 levels Celsius in tropical humidity and throughout tough terrain.
Because the world embarks on an unprecedented marketing campaign to convey ultra-cold COVID-19 vaccines to billions in distant areas, Democratic Republic of Congo’s expertise holds important classes in distributing the vaccine and gaining the belief of these receiving it.
Congo itself will purpose to make use of the know-how and native experience to get its folks vaccinated in opposition to COVID-19. The nation has recorded over 15,000 instances and 369 deaths from the virus, and faces a second wave of infections.
Between 2018-20, well being staff inoculated greater than 400,000 folks in three Ebola outbreaks, lugging vials colder than an Antarctic winter throughout heat forests and alongside mud-clogged mountain roads. When vehicles couldn’t move, they drove motorbikes. If water was the one method, they used canoes.
“These roads are sometimes flooded through the wet season. Quite a lot of instances it’s important to cross rivers that will not have bridges,” mentioned John Johnson, an immunisation and outbreak response advisor for French medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF).
It was the most important ever roll-out of an ultra-cold chain vaccine, mentioned a spokesperson for GAVI, an alliance of governments, drug corporations and charities that arranges international vaccination campaigns.
In Mbandaka, full-scale disaster was averted. The vaccine, and properly drilled well being protocols, contained the virus.
Key to the roll-out was a high-tech thermos that would match on a bike or in a canoe and maintain vials chilly for per week – important in Congo the place fewer than one in 10 folks have entry to electrical energy.
The Arktek system works like a large espresso thermos that may be full of lots of of vaccines, and particular ice packs made of varied supplies.
Produced in China by Aucma and retailing for round $2,300 per unit, it was developed in 2014 to retailer polio vaccines at 2-8 levels Celsius, and tweaked when Merck’s Ebola vaccine was accepted to be used in Guinea and Sierra Leone throughout a 2013-16 outbreak.
“Like most thermoses designed to maintain your espresso scorching or a chilly drink chilly, they use a vacuum to defend the product from the setting,” mentioned Daniel Lieberman from the World Well being Labs (GHL), a non-profit analysis organisation created by the Gates Basis which helped design it.
In Congo, they discovered the most effective ice packs used salt water, which saved the vaccine frozen for as much as per week with out energy.
Well being groups in Congo arrange a community of deep freezers from which the Arktek was deployed. That helped medics attain distant areas and finish an epidemic within the east that killed over 2,200 folks in two years, the second-worst Ebola outbreak in historical past.
GHL is now retuning the Arktek to be used with dry ice, which may maintain as much as 1,500 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine frozen for a number of weeks.
Advances in chilly chain know-how imply little if well being staff don’t earn public belief and dispel misinformation about vaccines.
WHO officers say that in Congo’s 2018-20 Ebola outbreak, they made the error of not using native well being staff.
Rumours unfold that the vaccine would make males weak, lady infertile and youngsters much less clever. Greater than 300 assaults on well being staff have been recorded, leaving six lifeless.
“They should perceive what they’re getting and the dangers and the advantages. The error that’s typically made is in watering down the message and making it too easy,” MSF’s Johnson mentioned.
The WHO used solely native healthcare staff to distribute the vaccine in a subsequent outbreak within the west, which resulted in six months with 55 deaths.
Vaccine scepticism just isn’t confined to central Africa. A 2018 examine of 140 nations by the London-based Wellcome Belief medical charity discovered that low-income areas are inclined to have increased confidence that vaccines are protected than high-income ones.
A 3rd of individuals in the UK say they’ve seen messages discouraging the general public from getting a coronavirus vaccine, in response to analysis by King’s School London and British analysis firm Ipsos MORI.
It’s important to handle doubts now, earlier than mass COVID-19 vaccination campaigns start, mentioned Touré Alhassane, who led the WHO’s vaccine rollout throughout Congo’s newest Ebola outbreak, which resulted in November.
“Even in case you have all the cash on the planet, and you’ve got the whole lot to implement it, if the group are usually not with you, you aren’t going to succeed,” he mentioned.